Abstract

This study examines the crucial role of the goalkeeper during negative transitions in futsal, when the team loses possession of the ball and must quickly reorganize to defend.

The goalkeeper's ability to make quick decisions, communicate effectively with teammates, and position himself correctly is crucial to preventing dynamic numerical inferiority situations that can result in opposing goals.

The analysis of the 2020/2021 league highlights the importance of transitions in determining a team's success. Teams with better scoring and defending percentages during transitions, such as Italservice Pesaro, tend to win the championship. For the goalkeeper, technical and tactical preparation, training decision-making skills in stressful situations, and collaboration with teammates are essential elements in

effectively managing these phases of the game.

In conclusion, the goalkeeper's effective management of negative transitions can make the difference between victory and defeat.

"In Chicago, I was often the backbone, the loudest voice on the team, and maybe, at times, even a bit selfish. But in the end, we won. I remember an anecdote. Coach Tex Winter, after I scored 24 consecutive points, said to me, 'Hey Mike, there's no 'I' in team.' I replied, 'But I just won.'" Michael Jordan.

The quote by Michael Jordan, mentioned in this context, emphasizes the importance of individuality. The key role of the goalkeeper in critical moments of the game reinforces the idea that the team's success also depends on individual performance in decisive moments.

“Play football, but not to become professionals, not to become rich, but to play sports” –Lev Ivanovich Yashin,in Russian Лев Ива́нович Я́шин.

Everyone talks about how important it is for a young quarterback to sit on the bench and watch the game.

But instead of learning to play, all they learn is to sit and watch.

(Mike Ditka on ESPN's Sunday NFL Countdown November 18, 2007)

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

The goalkeeper and “problem solving”.

The goalkeeper in five-a-side football has a crucial role, especially in situations of dynamic numerical inferiority. In these cases, his ability to read the game, positioning and reactivity become even more essential. He is constantly finding solutions to the problems he faces.

A common trait of skilled problem solvers is their ability to recognize connections between two or more problem situations and their corresponding solution methods. Re-presenting a problem in another context makes it more tractable. Using analogy in problem solving allows you to connect the familiar (a previously used method, strategy, or context) to the unfamiliar (a new problem). This is where the power of analogy lies.

“Even when I try to share my thinking during problem-solving discussions, students have difficulty applying the methods and strategies they have used before to solve a new problem. I have believed that this is due to unfamiliarity with problem solving, rather than to exercises designed to practice a particular skill or use a specific, easily identifiable concept. As I have said before, I have always tried to model the problem-solving process in classes, but I find that at the end of a problem discussion, even when I insist on student input for direction and strategy, I am often the one solving the problem. I have repeatedly shared with students what I consider one of the most important facts about problem solving: You are not expected to know how to solve a problem, but to understand how to try to figure out how to solve it.” (Steve Benson, 2007, pp. 2-6).

The analogy brought to situations of numerical inferiority helps the last bastion of futsal to solve the problem by making dynamic decisions. These decisions can be trained precisely because in training a similar problem is proposed, even if not in a competitive context. The exercise in search of this type of solution helps to make a quick decision during the match.

On the other hand, what separates us from a victory or a defeat? Probably a detail, and it is in the attention to detail that the goalkeeper's performance can be improved. We talked about "problem solving" precisely because in situations of numerical inferiority the decision must be clear, fast and simple. The longer we spend solving the problem, the less time we will have to find a simple solution, and not a miracle, that prevents the opposing team from scoring.

“math is like a video game; if you sit and watch, you are wasting your time and your semester”

Proposing an exercise that serves to anticipate a decision is like solving a problem of hiking in the woods.

There are at least three different ways to hike in the woods. One is to be guided along a previously created path, often by an expert who has hiked the trail before. Another is to follow a known trail, perhaps after being guided along the trail several times. The third is

to be willing to leave a known trail to try a completely new trail when the need arises (or just for the fun of it). Being guided on the hike is efficient, if the goal is to get to the end of the trail. You can see some places, but only those to which you are guided (youth and school goalkeeper). It is probably the most convenient method for novice hikers, because you do not have to keep track of where you are. However, this method does not help us reach places that we do not know.

Traveling alone on a well-known trail is less efficient, since you do not have an expert to guide you along the trail. However, it is certainly more interesting, because you can choose when and where to stop and how fast to walk. Of course, to reach a place you have not been before, you must be willing to stray from the path and occasionally walk a new trail. Some of these new places may be just off the trail, while others may be far from your comfort zone, but these less traveled places are often the most interesting (and informative)

(Benson, 2007, p. 5).

Many hikers are not natural explorers. It takes a rare person who feels confident enough to walk to the end of a trail (or even back to the starting point) and to choose whether to return to the starting point (already a mature goalkeeper). The goalkeeper must necessarily be one of these. He does not have well-defined boundaries; he has frontiers and, unlike borders, frontiers are porous, allowing them to be overcome and intervened before the problem reaches the walls of his city.

To anticipate the problem, exercises are needed in which the goalkeeper is able to make the decisions he deems most appropriate, perhaps a Brazilian save to close the second post even if a split would be preferred, or an anticipation with the feet even if it would be more comfortable to wait for the 1 on 1 inside his own penalty area. Only by taking his own path in training will he be able to find a quick solution in a phase of numerical inferiority in the match.

In conclusion, G. Polya in the book “How to Solve It” proposes the following steps for solving a mathematical problem:

1. First, you need to understand the problem.

2. Once you understand this, you need to make a plan.

3. Execute the plan.

4. Look back at your work. How could it be improved?

If this technique fails, Pólya advises: "If you cannot solve the proposed problem, try to solve a related problem first. Can you imagine a more accessible related problem?" (Pólya, 1954, p. 1).

Following Polya's advice to solve outnumbered situations, we need to start with a simpler problem to find the solution to the outnumbered problem on the field in advance: if we wait and don't practice, we lose the semester.

This study examines the crucial role of the goalkeeper during negative transitions in futsal, when the team loses possession of the ball and must quickly reorganize to defend.

The goalkeeper's ability to make quick decisions, communicate effectively with teammates, and position himself correctly is crucial to preventing dynamic numerical inferiority situations that can result in opposing goals.

The analysis of the 2020/2021 league highlights the importance of transitions in determining a team's success. Teams with better scoring and defending percentages during transitions, such as Italservice Pesaro, tend to win the championship. For the goalkeeper, technical and tactical preparation, training decision-making skills in stressful situations, and collaboration with teammates are essential elements in

effectively managing these phases of the game.

In conclusion, the goalkeeper's effective management of negative transitions can make the difference between victory and defeat.

"In Chicago, I was often the backbone, the loudest voice on the team, and maybe, at times, even a bit selfish. But in the end, we won. I remember an anecdote. Coach Tex Winter, after I scored 24 consecutive points, said to me, 'Hey Mike, there's no 'I' in team.' I replied, 'But I just won.'" Michael Jordan.

The quote by Michael Jordan, mentioned in this context, emphasizes the importance of individuality. The key role of the goalkeeper in critical moments of the game reinforces the idea that the team's success also depends on individual performance in decisive moments.

“Play football, but not to become professionals, not to become rich, but to play sports” –Lev Ivanovich Yashin,in Russian Лев Ива́нович Я́шин.

Everyone talks about how important it is for a young quarterback to sit on the bench and watch the game.

But instead of learning to play, all they learn is to sit and watch.

(Mike Ditka on ESPN's Sunday NFL Countdown November 18, 2007)

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

The goalkeeper and “problem solving”.

The goalkeeper in five-a-side football has a crucial role, especially in situations of dynamic numerical inferiority. In these cases, his ability to read the game, positioning and reactivity become even more essential. He is constantly finding solutions to the problems he faces.

A common trait of skilled problem solvers is their ability to recognize connections between two or more problem situations and their corresponding solution methods. Re-presenting a problem in another context makes it more tractable. Using analogy in problem solving allows you to connect the familiar (a previously used method, strategy, or context) to the unfamiliar (a new problem). This is where the power of analogy lies.

“Even when I try to share my thinking during problem-solving discussions, students have difficulty applying the methods and strategies they have used before to solve a new problem. I have believed that this is due to unfamiliarity with problem solving, rather than to exercises designed to practice a particular skill or use a specific, easily identifiable concept. As I have said before, I have always tried to model the problem-solving process in classes, but I find that at the end of a problem discussion, even when I insist on student input for direction and strategy, I am often the one solving the problem. I have repeatedly shared with students what I consider one of the most important facts about problem solving: You are not expected to know how to solve a problem, but to understand how to try to figure out how to solve it.” (Steve Benson, 2007, pp. 2-6).

The analogy brought to situations of numerical inferiority helps the last bastion of futsal to solve the problem by making dynamic decisions. These decisions can be trained precisely because in training a similar problem is proposed, even if not in a competitive context. The exercise in search of this type of solution helps to make a quick decision during the match.

On the other hand, what separates us from a victory or a defeat? Probably a detail, and it is in the attention to detail that the goalkeeper's performance can be improved. We talked about "problem solving" precisely because in situations of numerical inferiority the decision must be clear, fast and simple. The longer we spend solving the problem, the less time we will have to find a simple solution, and not a miracle, that prevents the opposing team from scoring.

“math is like a video game; if you sit and watch, you are wasting your time and your semester”

Proposing an exercise that serves to anticipate a decision is like solving a problem of hiking in the woods.

There are at least three different ways to hike in the woods. One is to be guided along a previously created path, often by an expert who has hiked the trail before. Another is to follow a known trail, perhaps after being guided along the trail several times. The third is

to be willing to leave a known trail to try a completely new trail when the need arises (or just for the fun of it). Being guided on the hike is efficient, if the goal is to get to the end of the trail. You can see some places, but only those to which you are guided (youth and school goalkeeper). It is probably the most convenient method for novice hikers, because you do not have to keep track of where you are. However, this method does not help us reach places that we do not know.

Traveling alone on a well-known trail is less efficient, since you do not have an expert to guide you along the trail. However, it is certainly more interesting, because you can choose when and where to stop and how fast to walk. Of course, to reach a place you have not been before, you must be willing to stray from the path and occasionally walk a new trail. Some of these new places may be just off the trail, while others may be far from your comfort zone, but these less traveled places are often the most interesting (and informative)

(Benson, 2007, p. 5).

Many hikers are not natural explorers. It takes a rare person who feels confident enough to walk to the end of a trail (or even back to the starting point) and to choose whether to return to the starting point (already a mature goalkeeper). The goalkeeper must necessarily be one of these. He does not have well-defined boundaries; he has frontiers and, unlike borders, frontiers are porous, allowing them to be overcome and intervened before the problem reaches the walls of his city.

To anticipate the problem, exercises are needed in which the goalkeeper is able to make the decisions he deems most appropriate, perhaps a Brazilian save to close the second post even if a split would be preferred, or an anticipation with the feet even if it would be more comfortable to wait for the 1 on 1 inside his own penalty area. Only by taking his own path in training will he be able to find a quick solution in a phase of numerical inferiority in the match.

In conclusion, G. Polya in the book “How to Solve It” proposes the following steps for solving a mathematical problem:

1. First, you need to understand the problem.

2. Once you understand this, you need to make a plan.

3. Execute the plan.

4. Look back at your work. How could it be improved?

If this technique fails, Pólya advises: "If you cannot solve the proposed problem, try to solve a related problem first. Can you imagine a more accessible related problem?" (Pólya, 1954, p. 1).

Following Polya's advice to solve outnumbered situations, we need to start with a simpler problem to find the solution to the outnumbered problem on the field in advance: if we wait and don't practice, we lose the semester.